now browsing by tag
Students can earn a bachelors degree from an Interior Design
College. A good school will provide the student with the ability to
apply their creative ideas and techniques to professional interior
design. These areas of interior design are planning, designing,
equipping and furnishing commercial and residential interior spaces.
student at an interior design college will learn the principles of
computer application drafting (CAD) and graphic techniques. In addition,
the student learns the effects of interior lighting, acoustics, color
coordination, integrating systems, furniture and furnishings. However,
that is not all, interior design also covers such things as textiles,
textile finishing’s, the history of interior design and the various
different period styles. Lastly, the student should expect to learn
about basic structural design and building codes and inspection
regulations. In addition, how the regulations apply to residential and
commercial interior design.
Several well qualified Interior Design
Colleges and schools offer the student a well-rounded curriculum that
enhances the student’s creativity along with the human factor of
interior design. Students need not only learn about the creative aspects
of interior design. The business side of interior design and how to
deal with clients, is also an important topic to be studied. Without
people, the interior designer has no work.
The typical interior
design student is creative, energetic and curious. Interior design is a
creative and quite varied career. No two designs are the same, the
designer needs to use a variety of techniques and methods to create a
desirable living space that pleases their client.
Interior Design College will arm the student with
insight and knowledge to prepare them for an exciting and profitable
career in Interior Design. The interior designer's ultimate and main
goal is to transform plain generic areas into beautiful and creative
spaces that meet the personalities of the interior designer's clients.
Interior Design College in the United States offer four-year
baccalaureate degrees in Interior Design. Universities offer the same
type of program. Some colleges offer Interior Design as a stand-alone
program only. Students may pursue a Masters degree in Interior Design
but this is much less common. You will find students that pursue their
more advanced degree in a related design subject such as fine art or
Interior design college institutions have
expanded beyond the traditional classroom or studio based instruction.
Online degree programs now are being offered in interior design. The
online programs are just as comprehensive as the studio-based programs.
would be beneficial for the student to attend an Interior Design
College that is accredited by the Council for Interior Design
Accreditation, the primary accreditation agency for interior design
education programs in the United States.
Selecting The Right Windows for Energy Efficiency
New window technologies have increased energy benefits and comfort, and have provided more practical options for consumers. This selection guide will help homeowners, architects, and builders take advantage of the expanding window market. The guide contains three
sections: an explanation of energy-related window characteristics, a discussion of window energy performance ratings, and a convenient checklist for window selection.
Selecting the right window for a specific home invariably requires tradeoffs between different
energy performance features, and with other non-energy issues. An understanding of some basic energy concepts is therefore essential to choosing appropriate windows and skylights. As illustrated on the following page, three major types of energy flow occur through windows:
(1) non-solar heat losses and gains in the form of conduction, convection, and radiation;
(2) solar heat gains in the form of radiation; and
(3) airflow, both intentional (ventilation) and unintentional (infiltration).
The non-solar heat flow through a window is a result of the temperature difference between the indoors and outdoors. Windows lose heat to the outside during the heating season and
gain heat from the outside during the cooling season, adding to the energy needs in a home. The effects of nonsolar heat flow are generally greater on heating needs than on cooling
needs because indoor-outdoor temperature differences are greater during the heating season than during the cooling season in most regions of the United States. For any window
product, the greater the temperature difference from inside to out, the greater the rate of heat flow.
A U-factor is a measure of the rate of non-solar heat flow through a window or skylight. (An R-value is a measure of the resistance of a window or skylight to heat flow and is the reciprocal of a U-factor.) Lower U-factors (or higher R values), thus indicate reduced heat flow. U-factors
allow consumers to compare the insulating properties of different windows
The insulating value of a singlepane window is due mainly to the thin films of still air on the interior and moving air on the exterior glazing surfaces. The glazing itself doesnt offer
much resistance to heat flow. Additional panes markedly reduce the U-factor by creating still air spaces, which increase insulating value.
In addition to conventional double-pane windows, many manufacturers offer windows
that incorporate relatively new tech- nologies aimed at decreasing U-factors.
These technologies include low-emittance (low-E) coatings and gas fills. A low-E coating is a microscopically thin, virtually invisible, metal or metallic oxide coating deposited on a glazing surface.
The coating may be applied to one or more of the glazing surfaces facing an
air space in a multiple-pane window, or to a thin plastic film inserted between panes. The coating limits radiative heat flow between panes by reflecting heat back into the home during cold weather and back to the outdoors during warm weather. This effect increases the insulating value of the window. Most window manufacturers now offer windows and skylights
with low-E coatings.
The spaces between windowpanes can be filled with gases that insulate better
than air. Argon, krypton, sulfur hexafluoride, and carbon dioxide are among the gases used for this purpose. Gas fills add only a few dollars to the prices of most windows and skylights. They are most effective when used in conjunction with low-E coatings. For these reasons, some manufacturers have made gas fills standard in their low-E windows and skylights.
The insulating value of an entire window can be very different from that of the glazing alone. The whole-window U-factor includes the effects of the glazing, the frame, and, if present, the insulating glass spacer. (The spacer is the component in a window that separates glazing panes. It often reduces the insulating value at the glazing edges.)
Since a single-pane window with a metal frame has about the same overall Ufactor as a single glass pane alone, frame and glazing edge effects were not of great concern before multiple-pane, low-E, and gas-filled windows and skylights were widely used. With the recent expansion of thermally improved glazing options offered by manufacturers, frame and spacer properties now can have a more pronounced influence on the U-factors of windows and skylights.
As a result, frame and spacer options have also multiplied as manufacturers offer improved designs. Window frames can be made of aluminum, steel, wood, vinyl, fiberglass, or
composites of these materials. Wood, fiberglass, and vinyl frames are better insulators than metal. Some aluminum frames are designed with internal thermal breaks, non-metal components that reduce heat flow through the frame.
These thermally broken aluminum frames can resist heat flow considerably better than aluminum frames without thermal breaks. Composite frames may use two or more materials (e.g. aluminum-clad wood, vinyl-clad wood) to optimize their design and performance, and typically have insulating values intermediate between those of the materials comprising them. Frame geometry, as well as material type, also strongly influences thermal performance properties.
Spacers can be made of aluminum, steel, fiberglass, foam, or combinations of
these materials. Spacer thermal perfor- mance is as much a function of geometry as of composition. For example, some well-designed metal spacers insulate almost as well as foam.
The table on page 3 shows representative U-factors for window glazing, frame, and spacer combinations under winter design conditions. Due to their orientation and their greater projected surface areas, domed and other shaped tilted and horizontal skylights have significantly higher U-factors than do vertical windows of similar materials and opening sizes.
Heavy Industry’ is a rather amorphous term. According to Wikipedia, Heavy Industry signifies the production of goods that are either heavy in weight or in the processes leading to their production.Examples of such industries include steel, chemical, mining, and construction equipment, machinery.
The United States is the largest consumer of energy in the world, using 94.9 quadrillion BTUs in 2009 and heavy industry in the United States accounts for about 31% of all energy consumption, significantly more than any other sector of the economy. Seven energy-intensive industries use three-fourths of this power; these are aluminum, chemicals, forest products, glass, metal casting, mining, and steel. All these heavy industries are also under tremendous pressure to reduce their huge dependence on expensive non
A recent study by the European Commission thinks not. The study estimates that the United States has the potential to save about 45 TWh energy per year, through use of energy efficient transformers. Even a 0.01 percent gain in the average efficiency of utility transformers installed in the U.S. in a single year, can save as much as 2.9 Twh energy.
The environmental benefits of energy-efficient transformers are also significant and the study by the European Commission believes transformers could well emerge as a major focus for energy efficient
initiatives in the industry.
Energy Guzzling Industries
Paper and Pulp Industry
Iron and Steel Industry
Is the Answer Energy-Efficiency
Energy efficiency is already playing a significant role in the Heavy Industry, but with growing concerns of greenhouse gas emissions and skyrocketing cost of energy, it obviously needs to do more.Before the 1970s, the U.S. energy consumption grew in parallel to gross domestic product (GDP). Had that trend continued, current U.S. energy demand would have more than doubled, currently, the energy consumption is 1.5 times that of 1970. Reduction in energy consumption has resulted from a combination of energy efficient methods and a shift from energy-intensive manufacturing toward a service and information-based economy.
Do Energy Efficient Transformers Hold the Key?
As energy costs rise and availability becomes uncertain, the necessity of utilizing energy-efficient products becomes imperative. Additionally, a globally competitive business environment is causing businesses to cut costs in order to remain competitive. Of particular interest are distribution transformers
that are the largest loss-making components in electrical networks.
In a typical grid, electric transformer loss contributes to about 40-50% of the total transmission and distribution loss. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimates that on a conservative estimate 61 billion kWh annually can be attributed to transformer losses. These losses cost end-users $3 to $4 billion annually. An energy-efficient transformer is therefore an important means to reduce transmission and distribution loss. Energy saving transformers can additionally save the equivalent of more than 70 million tons of CO2 emissions.
The answer to energy efficiency is in making distribution transformers efficient; and thankfully, manufacturers have the technical know-how to offer better, cost effective, low loss, energy efficient transformers.
Energy Efficient Distribution Transformers
Distribution transformers distribute power from power generating facilities to end-users and while energy loss during transmission is inevitable, measures are taken to reduce it considerably.However, for energy to be consumed voltage needs to be reduced and it is at this point of stepping down electricity that distribution transformers lose energy. Even though only a small portion of energy is lost it is in a permanent manner and standby power losses account for 2% of total electricity production.
Despite high average efficiencies of 95 to 99.75%, transformers have a significant environmental impact because they continuously consume power.
The energy losses in electricity transformers fall into two components, namely, no-load losses resulting from the energized iron core, which is a permanent phenomenon, and load losses, arising when providing power to users. Load losses also result from the resistance of the coil when the transformer is in use, and from eddy currents due to stray flux.
Technical solutions exist to reduce transformer losses by 75% at minimum when replaced by modern transformers or even by 90% when replacing transformers over 30 years old. Energy-efficiency can be improved with better transformer design, like selecting better, lower-core-loss steels; reducing flux density in a specific core by increasing the core size; increasing conductor cross-section to reduce current density; good balancing between the relative quantities of iron and copper in the core and coils.
An energy efficient transformer is an important means to reduce Transmission & Distribution loss and can save up to 120 TWh / year. Energy efficient transformers can provide considerable environmental benefits too. For example, a typical urban distribution transformer rated at 400 kW has lifetime losses equivalent to 125 “”184 tons of CO2 emissions; a more energy-efficient design can reduce these emissions to 56 tons.
Any serious student who wants to pursue a career in interior design has the same question — where are the best interior design schools? In the past, you were only limited to attend schools by physical location. However, some of the best schools these days exist on the Internet.
In this article, I will give your guide on how to find the best Interior design schools both online and offline.
The fact of the matter is, even if you want to attend school physically, you can start your search online. Here, you can get an idea of all the different types of programs that are available to you, and which cities and states are offering these different programs.
Depending upon what you wish to get out of your interior design education, you’re choices will vary as to what the best interior design school for you is. However, there are variety of different programs and courses out there that are available to you, to help you determine which schools to consider.
For example, if you are going for it certification program, then the best schools are probably going to be those in your local area. This is because a certification program is not meant to be used more than to help you with common design aspects, so you do not need the latest technology and the highest level of expertise from your professors.
However, if you’re going for a bachelors of science degree, then you should be a bit more picky as to the school you decide upon.
New York City offers some of the best interior design schools in the United States. In fact, just going to New York City and studying the interior design of the different buildings is an education in itself. The Big Apple is a great place to explore, and look at the different schools that are available. It definitely has a reputation of having some of the top design schools around.
Then there’s the other side of the coast — California. There are three different cities in California that offer excellent opportunities for interior design schools. These cities are Los Angeles, San Diego and Santa Ana. Los Angeles has more of a focus on fashion design as it relates to interior design, whereas San Diego and Santa Ana have schools specifically created for interior design, and focus on those needs.
While many in Washington still warn about the dangers of carbon emissions and climate change, the reality and perhaps the one thing that experts on both sides agree on, is that Americans are paying less attention to global warming than they have in the past. To end this uncertainty, the Senate after months of behind the scenes maneuvering will begin the debate on the critically important legislation which could help American consumers, businesses and the federal government to save millions of dollars each year by using less energy, and using less energy will be a step forward in the fight against climate change in the U.S.
The new energy efficiency legislation introduced by Senators Shaheen and Portman could come up before the U.S. Senate for approval. The Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act, also known as Shaheen-Portman Bill will help to reduce the energy bill of U.S., improve its economic competitiveness, create new American jobs and enhance U.S. energy security. The bill has been endorsed by more than 200 businesses, trade associations and advocacy groups.
What is the Energy Savings and Industrial Competitiveness Act?
The Shaheen-Portman Energy Efficiency Bill passed the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee by a 19-3 vote, it includes provisions that will directly improve energy efficiency in buildings, industrial processes and federal agencies, the provisions in the bill include strengthening energy efficiency requirements in building energy codes, incentivizing energy efficiency using rebates and for certain equipment, encouraging energy efficiency supply chains through a new supply star program.
The American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE) found implementation of the bill would save about 9.5 quadrillion btus (british thermal units) between 2014 and 2030, or nearly one tenth of the annual energy use in the U.S. As the second largest consumer of energy in the world and the worlds biggest economy it is critically important for the United States to improve energy efficiency, the bill has received bipartisan support with seven Republicans and twelve Democrats in favor of the bill. It contains a variety of policies and programs to reduce residential, commercial and industrial energy use and focusing on sectors and areas with energy savings potential such as the residential, commercial and industrial sectors, the bill also restricts inefficient energy practices that will cost the U.S. economy billions of dollars and millions of jobs every year. One of the components of the bill also requires the Federal Government- which is the largest user of energy adopt energy saving techniques and best practices to operate efficiently.
Commenting on the bill Senator Portman said Washington can seem pretty divided these days, but there are some things on which we all can agree. This bill is one of them it is good for the economy and good for the environment. By making it easier for employers to use energy efficient tools, we are helping them to reduce their costs, enabling them to put those savings towards expanding their companies and hiring new workers.
The bill has received positive feedback and widespread support, the only constraint halting the success of the bill are the amendments lawmakers are trying to attach to it. The successful passing of this bill will not only help in mitigating climate change in the U.S. and reduce carbon emissions but also be a trendsetter for other countries to follow suit.
In towns and cities throughout the United States, asbestos lawsuits are increasingly prolific as individuals exposed to asbestos twenty and thirty years ago are today developing and dying from mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a rare and extremely lethal form of cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the protective sac covering most of the bodys internal organs. Mesothelioma, which is caused by exposure to asbestos, takes up to three decades to strike its victims. Those with the greatest risk of developing mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.
Today, a growing number of mesothelioma lawsuits have succeeded in recovering hundreds of millions in compensation for the tens of thousands of mesothelioma victims. Compensation is paid by the companies that make these asbestos products, and enables victims to cover their medical expenses and to be compensated for their pain and suffering.
A current center of concern for asbestos victims is New Orleans. In the post-Katrina era, New Orleans and the entire state of Louisiana is undergoing a boom in construction a business infamous for its use of asbestos products. Post-storm rehabilitations of homes, the related large-scale demolitions, and even just the ubiquitous roofing jobs currently underway are exposing thousands of people to asbestos. Despite these dangers, however, Congress is considering a Bill that would prevent someone who becomes ill with cancer as a result of post-Katrina asbestos exposure from getting financial relief.
The introduction of the Bill is being motivated by calls for tort reform among asbestos-related industries. Financially crippled by increasingly high rewards to asbestos victims, these industries want a cap on their liability. They cite a recent asbestos lawsuit in Louisiana, in which homeowners who purchased asbestos-contaminated fill dirt sued the contractor who sold them the soil, as well as the oil company where the dirt had been removed. Although none of the plaintiffs have yet become sick, a jury awarded them compensatory and punitive damages due to their fear of harm (rather than actual harm). The verdict was upheld by a Louisiana appeals court, which ruled that any exposure to a harmful substance, no matter how slight, justifies a lawsuit.
The new Bill, set for debate by Congress in February, would halt asbestos lawsuits. The Bill is seeking to protect companies with asbestos liability from further lawsuits by paying into a government administered trust fund, which would screen claimants through established medical criteria. Victims would be awarded compensation based on the severity of their illness. The Bill specifically states that the fund would not cover victims of environmental and neighborhood exposure, with the prime example being post-Katrina victims in New Orleans and across Louisiana. The Bill is widely opposed by the medical community, as well as by labor unions and citizens rights activists, particularly in the state of Louisiana.
Getting degrees in interior design is becoming one of the more
popular degree options available today and constantly being offered by
different colleges and universities. Interior design is regulated in
almost 24 states of the United States and anybody who is intent on
studying for a degree in interior design course should pick up a
Bachelors degree in Interior Design first before they opt for an
interior designers license.
Interior design degrees are extremely
important and so is the knowledge of CAD software which is all about
Computer Aided Design. Both are equally necessary for the new interior
designers. People hiring interior designers prefer to opt for people who
have graduated and people who can handle modern technological
requirements such as CAD because not only are they cost effective but
they save people a lot of time too.
At this time the online
interior design degree is the most popular learning option for people
who want to get the degree, it is especially more popular with the use
of CAD software. Because of the benefits that the internet affords you
can get across to a wider student population across the entire world.
designers must be smart and imaginative at the same time in order to
use the small amount of interior space that is available in most large
cities of the world. What an interior design degree provides is that it
gives the student the knowledge and the practical experience to cope
with the different demands and requirements that a busy interior
designer constantly has to cope with.
An interior design degree is
the primary step in establishing a career in the field of interior
design. The development of your natural talent and creativity means
getting the right training as well as the necessary education. In order
to become a force in the field of global interior design it is always
essential that you have the requisite formal degrees from a college that
offers interior design degrees and qualifications.
Successful graduates in the field of interior design
will employ their creativity and imagination in order to design homes
for people as well as corporate establishments and order institutes of
commerce. Designers will make use of the knowledge of different types of
color as well as basic studies in the fields of architecture and
creative design in order that they create beautiful interiors and work
areas at the same time.
Interior design degree programs focus on
sharing and teaching skills in various areas of graphic drawing,
construction technology, color theory and space planning. Students will
focus on learning the different aspects of design from the technical and
the creative as well. Certain other important aspects including the
elements that concern human beings and aspects of interior decorating,
other aspects of building safety and information about the different
necessary requirements for design. You can visit http://www.interior-design-school.com to find out more information on interior design education.
you're looking for an interior design degree program to study, try to
find out if the institution has lecturers and academic staff who are
quite knowledgeable in the industry. Anyone studying in the field of
interior design should try to get the best world class training
When we think of backyard activities, sports often come to mind. While sports are a great way to spend your time outdoors, they are not all that backyard activities include. In fact, while you may not necessarily think so, backyard activities also involve the completion of projects. If you are a home improvement lover, it is quite possible that your next backyard activity could involve the building or the remodeling of a structure.
In the United States, backyards are filled with millions of different things. Many homeowners have pools, barns, work sheds, or garages. If you already have these items inside your yard, you may want to think about remodeling them. Remodeling projects are ideal for those who wish to update or expand their backyard structures. Summer is the perfect time to complete many remodeling projects, especially those that are outside.
While many homeowners make the decision to remodel, there are others that choose to build. If you dont have a barn, garage, or work shed, but you would like to have one, now would be the perfect time to start construction. In most areas of the United States, summer has the prefect weather conditions for many backyard projects.
The first step in building or remodeling a backyard structure is to develop a plan. If you already know what you would like to build and how you would like to build it, you are well on your way to a completed project. However, if you are unsure what you would like to build or how to build it, you may want to think about doing a little bit of research before you start your next home improvement project.
Perhaps, the easiest way to get ideas or directions on how to build a garage, work shed, or barn is to visit your local library or book store. In these locations, you should be able to find a number of books that will not only offer you suggestions, but give you directions on how to get started. Libraries are nice; however, you will only be able to keep the materials for a short period of time. If you are interested in saving your resource guides for another project, you may want to consider purchasing your own books.
Once you have decided on a structural design, you will need to obtain the necessary building supplies. The supplies that you need will all depend on what you are building or remodeling. Despite the fact that different projects will require different supplies, there are some supplies that are common among all backyard building or remodeling projects. These supplies may include wood, metal, saws, and many other common household tools.
As previously mentioned, summer is ideal for most construction projects. Even though the weather will most likely be cooperative, it may still be a good idea to check your local weather forecast. If you are doing a project that requires perfect weather, such as roofing or painting, you will want to plan your project around the projected weather forecast. With projects that require more than one days worth of work, you may want to wait until the weather forecast predicts steady weather. This will prevent you from having to stop your building or remodeling and then startup again later.
If all the existing high-rise structures and buildings that heighten the skyline of the United States were to be retrofitted with LED Retrofit Lighting, as much as $33 billion can be saved in a single year by the end of 2030. Sounds too far-fetched? Well, it is not too far from the stark reality that the country urgently needs to plan an energy-efficient retrofit to save energy as well as the planet.
Buildings are the largest source of energy efficiency, especially in the United States. LED retrofitting light helps achieve environmental synergy through energy efficient lighting fixtures installed at commercial centers, buildings and homes. Retrofitting buildings with this technology helps to save money on energy bills and reduce global warming.
Within the next twenty years or so, if all buildings in the United States were to be upgraded with LED Retrofit Lighting, the surging demand in lighting electricity can be reduced by as much as 33 percent, generating energy savings of around $265 billion. By using energy efficient lighting for just one-twentieth of all the homes in the United States, the government can definitely, avoid the need for 13 new medium-sized (300MW) power plants every year. At the same time, the total associated greenhouse gas emissions can be lowered by up to 160 million metric tons annually, thus saving our planet from further depletion of natural resources.
The mission behind every strategic initiative towards energy-efficiency is to reduce the emission of harmful carbon dioxide with the help of breakthrough concepts, such as LED Retrofit Lighting, that produces higher levels of energy output using lesser amount of energy. Advancement in technology has made it possible to retrofit any interior or exterior lighting to an LED component with minimal downtime.
However, despite the energy savings and environmental benefits of energy efficiency with LED retrofitting lights, several barriers had earlier prevented homeowners and businesses from retrofitting their buildings. Until a few years ago, affordable financing was one such barrier. Homeowners who were willing to invest in home retrofits and undertake energy efficient improvements were not aware of any financing options that could have been devised keeping the best interest of the community in mind.
The scenario has changed today, thanks to licensed companies in the energy smart industry, who offer innovative retrofit lighting service for homes, commercial complex and other governmental buildings, ensuring guaranteed energy cost savings and unbelievable positive cash flows. These companies specialize in LED Retrofit Lighting and encourage home owners or businesses to upgrade their existing facilities with state-of-the-art energy-efficient lighting with no money paid up-front.
The leading providers of LED retrofitting lights in the United States are well-equipped to retrofit an entire building through a professional turn-key approach, bringing about a neat 75 percent saving in energy bills. In fact, buildings that are powered by LED Retrofit Lighting require less power generation compared to facilities that are powered by other green-power systems. This makes LED Retrofit Lighting a far more economical and technically-feasible energy solution for the modern man. It goes without saying that American homes and buildings present an unprecedented opportunity to save energy and make the world a greener place.